How the marketing mix went from 4P to 10P


During the marketing courses that I run for Cegos, the Mix-Marketing is often debated, not on its usefulness that no one disputes, but on the number of ingredients that compose it. The question is whether the 4Ps are still current, we are talking about 5P, 7P and more recently 8P. Now, taking a look around, we arrive at 10P. So who are they? What is their use? Is not there a bit too much? Should we find others?

How the marketing mix went from 4P to 10P
mix-marketing, shutterstock

The Mix-Marketing 4Ps
It was Jérôme Mac Carthy who created the Mix-Marketing Model with the 4Ps in 1960. Popularized by Philip Kotler, the 4Ps went around the marketing departments. The principle is that a proposed offer to consumers is a combination of several components. They are mixed (mixed) between them and not juxtaposed side by side, so as to represent a global offer to consumers. All the ingredients are in synergy and concretize the same positioning. These 4Ps are still very useful for defining the offer, even in the social media and mobile marketing. The 4Ps are:

Product = product policy (product composition, patent, but also range policy, packaging …)
Price = price policy (premium or low cost, pricing policy, promotional price, etc.)
Place = the policy of distribution and access to the product (distribution circuit, off and on line, merchandising …)
Promotion = communication policy (advertising, media and hosted media, operational marketing, web, mobile and tablets, street marketing actions, sponsoring, webseries, viral marketing, etc.)
The 5th P
With the development of customer marketing, customer satisfaction becomes a lever for brand loyalty and reputation. The customer relationship becomes a full-fledged direction in the companies and, with the rise of services, the 5th P imposes itself: People or Personnel in contact with consumers. Its role is very important: when you go to the checkout of your supermarket, when you join the service provider of your Internet access provider, or any other approach, there is a person in front of you who speaks on behalf of the mark and which, in a way, reflects its image.

7P or extended marketing mix
At the same time, it seems clear that the 4 Ps are insufficient to define supply in a service company. Many authors, including Lovelock, in 1996, developed the 7P model, which adds to the initial 4Ps, in addition to the Personnel:

Process = what characterizes interaction with the service user. Because, unlike a product, the service is not stockable, it “consumes” at the same time it is produced. The term “Servuction” translates this phenomenon well.
Physical evidence = what characterizes the material component of the service is the Proof. Because, unlike a product that can be tested (sample) or tried (clothing), the service is intangible. It is therefore important to provide material evidence: contract, performance, satisfaction rate …
An 8th P, like Partnership or Partnership
The company operates more and more networked, with partnerships. This 8th P illustrates the policy of co-development between two companies or two complementary brands. Recently, the partnership between Nokia and Microsoft came to illustrate this 8th P, co-branding is another facet, as well as the strategy of exchanging links between sites.

9th P, as Permission Marketing
The term Permission Marketing was created by Seth Godin in his eponymous book. He promotes a new type of relational marketing and direct communication that involves asking consumers for authorization and the opposite is represented by spam. The objective of Permission Marketing is to encourage the consumer, or rather the Internet user and now the mobinaute, to enter into contact with the brand. First and foremost are programs of conquest and loyalty.

The 10th P, like “the Purple Cow”
Again Seth Godin! Imagine an urban family that goes to the countryside. First, she raves in front of a cow in a meadow, and then, what was fascinating at first becomes ordinary, so the cows look alike. For Seth Godin, this is what happens with the plethora of brands and products that clutter the supermarkets, and he proposes in his book, to create a purple cow, that is to say a truly remarkable product to elicit the ‘interest. So this is the P of innovation.

What is the P model?
It is necessary to have in mind the objective of this model to use it well. You can choose 5 P, 8P or 10P. The essential thing is that all these ingredients are in total concordance in order to offer a product